Urgensi Hutan Tropis

Berbicara mengenai kerusakan hutan tropis, maka yang pertama-tama dibahas yaitu ekologi. Ekologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan linkungannya. Ekologi mencakup suatu keterkaitan antara segenap unsur lingkungan hidup yang saling mempengaruhi, seperti tumbuhan dengan sinar matahari, tanah dengan air, yang pada umumnya dikatakann sebagai hukum alam yang berimbang (Natural Balance), dan biasa disebut ekosistem. Alam yang mengelola ekosistem-ekosistem dan saling berinteraksi satu sama lainnya.

Pengelolahan yang semula dilakukan oleh alam, sekarang banyak diambil alih oleh manusia, sementara manusia sendiri belum mampu menemukan mekanisme buatan yang sangat tepat untuk mengembalikannya ke proses dan sistem ekologi asal. Hal ini sering menjadikan ekosistem tidak seimbang. Keadaan lingkungan menjadi kritis dan merugikan semua pihak baik secara fisik ataupun organik, sebagai akibat dari mekanisme buatan manusia sendiri. Saat ini, semakin banyak hutan yang rusak dan tidak dapat berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya.

Pengertian hutan disini adalah suatu masyarakat tumbuh-tumbuhan dan hewan yang hidup dalam lapisan maupun permukaan tanah, yang terletak pada suatu kawasan dan membentuk suatu kesatuan ekosistem yang berada dalam keseimbangan dinamis.

Pengertian hutan diatas erat kaitannya dengan proses-proses yang saling berhubungan seperti berikut ini:

  1. Hidrologis, artinya hutan merupakan gudang penyimpanan air dan tempat menyerapnya air hujan maupun embun yang pada akhirnya akan mengalirkannya ke sungai-sungai yang memiliki mata air di tengah-tengah hutan secara teratur menurut irama alam. Hutan juga berperan untuk melindungi tanah dari erosi dan daur unsur haranya.
  2. Iklim, artinya komponen ekosistem alam yang terdiri dari unsur-unsur hujan (air, sinar matahari dan suhu), angin dan kelembaban yang sangat mempengaruhi kehidupan yang ada di permukaan bumi, terutama iklim makro maupun mikro.
  3. Kesuburan tanah, artinya tanah hutan merupakan pembentukan humus utama dan penyimpan unsur-unsur mineral bagi tumbuhan lain. Kesuburan tanah ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor seperti jenis batu induk yang membentuknya, kondisi selama dalam pembentukan, tekstur dan struktur tanah yang meliputi kelembaban, suhu dan air tanah, topografi wilayah, vegetasi dan jasad-jasad hidup. Faktor-faktor inilah yang kelak menyebabkan terbentuknya bermacam-macam formasi hutan dan vegetasi hutan.
  4. Keanekaragaman genetik, artinya hutan memiliki kekayaan dari berbaai jenis flora dan fauna.
  5. Sumber daya alam, artinya hutan mampu memberikan sumbangan hasil alam yang cukup besar bagi devisa negara, terutama di bidang industri. Selain itu hutan juga memberikan fungsi kepada masyarakat sekitar hutan sebagai pemenuhan kebutuhan sehari-hari.selai kayu juga dihasilkan bahan lain seperti damar, kopal, gondorukem, terpentin kayu putih dan rotan serta tanaman obat-obatan.
  6. Wilayah wisata alam,artinya hutan mampu berfungsi sebagai sumber inspirasi, keagungan Tuhan yang Maha Esa, nilai estetika, etika dan sebagainya.
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